PhD Dissertations by MUM Students – Management

The full-text pdf copies of all University PhD dissertations published since mid-1996 are now available free online to on-campus users.

All users can order any of the University dissertations for a fee by using the “Order” link on the citations below or on the abstract pages to which they link. Additional pre-1996 dissertations will be available for free to on-campus users in the future.

Dissertations [Updates: In Progress]

Bargerstock, Andrew Stephen — Management

Measuring the impact of computerizing the recruitment information system: improved utilization of inner resources through organizational self-referral mechanisms

Order No. 9605337

Business process improvement teams frequently engage computers to improve the quality and cost effectiveness of internal services. Prior surveys indicate that less than half of organizational employment departments have computerized their recruitment information systems. This survey of 225 U.S. organizations explores both the reasons for lack of computerization and the impact of installing a computerized recruitment information system (CRIS). Mailed questionnaires were sent to a sample of employment managers throughout the U.S.A.

Responses from the 120 non-computerized organizations reveal that uncertainty about estimating costs and benefits of computerization is a major obstacle for investment decisions.

Data from 105 CRIS respondents offers insights about how automation affects the cost and quality of internal employment services. The researcher predicted significant differences in hiring cost efficiency and recruiting response time between two computerized groups, HI profilers and LO profilers. HI profilers are characterized by regular search of their database of past applicants to resurrect candidates for current job vacancies. LO profilers do not or can not utilize their database in the same manner.

Compared to LO profilers, HI profilers report significantly superior improvements in cost of hiring and recruiter response time. HI profilers report a mean decrease of 11.1% in candidate sourcing costs compared to a 1.5% decrease for LO profilers. HI profilers also report a mean decrease of 6.3 days in time to fill vacancies compared to 1.2 day decrease for LO profilers. Both computerized groups report that these improvements were achieved without sacrificing the quality of candidate pool.

The aggregate mean payback period for HI profilers was 2.7 years compared to 31.6 years for LO profilers.

Further analysis indicates that the level of advertising before computerization significantly affects the level of cost savings achieved through implementation of the CRIS.

Frequent HI profile advertisers report a mean savings of 24.2% in candidate sourcing costs.

Results of this study can help computerized organizations improve their data management processes. For non-computerized organizations, the results offer insights about how to better estimate the costs and benefits achievable through computerization. Source: DAI, 56, no. 10A, (1995): 4035

Baxter, Michael James — Management

Consciousness, conscience, and conscientiousness: self- development, moral development, and organizational citizenship

Order No. 9328459

Arguments are presented from the point of view of both modern science and Maharishi’s Vedic Science in support of a relationship between moral development and organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB). A theoretical model is proposed, using principled morality as a dispositional determinant of OCB and value-based commitment as a moderator.

The model is tested using a sample of 126 full-time employees from various organizations, recruited from undergraduate and graduate college classes in two geographic locations. All subjects were given Rest’s (1986) Defining Issues Test (DIT) to evaluate the degree of principled moral reasoning applied in problem-solving, and O’Reilly and Chatman’s (1990) Normative Commitment scale to evaluate the degree of congruence between individual and organizational values. Supervisors for these employees were then asked to provide assessments in terms of five classes of behaviors that represent organizational citizenship: altruism, courtesy, civic virtue, sportsmanship, and conscientiousness (Podsakoff, MacKenzie, Moorman, & Fetter, 1990).

Results indicate no direct support for the a priori hypotheses. However, exploratory analysis reveals significant positive relationships for civic virtue, conscientiousness and courtesy in subsets of the data, indicating qualified support for the hypotheses. In addition, a highly significant negative relationship is found for courtesy in several data subsets.

Current theories of the psychological effects of underemployment are applied to the interpretation of these negative findings. In general, the mixed results of exploratory analysis suggest that there may exist both simple and complex links between individual moral standards and performance in business.

Implications for the findings are discussed, with the intention of simultaneously promoting both business ethics and performance. Source: DAI, 54, no. 07A, (1993): 2645

Carlisle, Thomas William — Management

Effects of the Transcendental Meditation program on psychological, health, social, and behavioral indicators of stress reduction and human resource development in the Indian workplace

Order No. 9605337

Reduction of stress and development of personnel are inseparable and necessary components of organizational effectiveness. However, few interventions simultaneously address what may be the primary impediment and enhancer, respectively, of business success. This dissertation assessed the effects of one such intervention, the Transcendental Meditation® (TM® ) program, on cognitive and affective, physical, relationship, and lifestyle indices of stress reduction and human resource development in the workplace. While several organizational studies have investigated similar changes in Western European and US companies, fewer have looked at stress reduction and development in developing nations, such as India.

The study had a pre and double-posttest design (10-day and 90-day) with 22 experimental subjects (TM practitioners) and 23 posttest-only controls–all equivalent-level managers at a dye-and-cast manufacturing firm in Bangalore, India. Seventy-eight data points combined into five scales or subscales and an aggregate of “lifestyle” behavioral/experience items to create six dependent variables, all but one of which showed significance in the hypothesized direction in one or both posttest periods using multivariate Hotelling’s one-sample T2 analyses (10-day: p < .0010; 90-day: p < .0010), followed by paired t-test analyses: Perceived Stress Scale (10-day: p < .0060; 90-day: p < .00001), Occupational Stress Inventory (10-day: p < .0779; 90-day: p < .1187), Lifestyle items (10-day: p < .0063; 90-day: p < .0085), Personal Experiences scale (10-day: P < .0048; 90-day: p < .0004), Hopkins Symptoms Check List (10-day: p < .0008; 90-day: p < .0377), and the Self-Esteem Survey subscale (10-day: p < .0023; 90-day: p < .0377). Further analyses showed large and increasing effect sizes between posttesting periods, “expectancy of benefit” to be a non-significant covariate, and a trend towards ceiling affects that prevented significant change between 10- and 90-day posttesting. These results reinforce previous findings on this procedures efficacy in stress reduction, increased positive experiences/behaviors and fewer negative ones, the development of the health, relationships, self-concept, and psychological well-being of employees, and support its wider implementation.

The findings lay the foundation for a proposed new job stress formulation, the Metapersonal Resources model. Integrating a theoretical orientation known as Maharishi Vedic Science with sixteen contributors to contemporary job stress understanding, it emphasizes the dimensions of psychological non-egocentrism and physiological strain reduction as principal components for both ameliorating stress and producing a state of dynamic quiescence.

De Armond, David Lee — Management

Effects of the Transcendental Meditation program on psychological, physiological, behavioral and organizational consequences of stress in managers and executives

Order No. 9633808

Although behavioral stress management programs are commonplace in corporations, stress remains a major problem. Accordingly there is a lack of agreement about what stress reduction methods, if any, are effective. Moreover, there has been a lack of empirical research examining the value of such programs for managers or executives. A three-month prospective study examined the effects of the Transcendental Meditation® technique on stress-related self-report, physiological and observer measures. The subjects were 76 executives, managers and other professionals of managerial rank in a mid-sized U.S. medical equipment developer and manufacturer.

Subjects who elected to learn the TM technique were compared to controls from the same organization and similar in age, education level, race, marital status, hours worked per week, job type and level of responsibility in the organization. The experimental attrition rate was 1%. The TM group improved significantly relative to controls on measures of mental health (p =.04), perceived stress (p =.01), physical complaints (p =.02), vitality (p =.002), healthful behaviors (p =.03), serum cholesterol (p =.03) and a composite measure of observer-rated contribution to the organization (p =.01), as indicated by planned contrasts utilizing analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). The effect sizes of the TM technique were comparable to those found in previous research involving non-managers. The findings are further supported by evidence from seven prior meta- analyses that the TM program has effect sizes two or three times as large as various other methods used to reduce stress or to unfold human potential, even in randomized controlled studies where the results could not be attributed to self- selection. Source: DAI, 57, no. 06B (1996): p. 4068

Feng, Pei Chun (Petrina) — Management

An empirical study of CPA’s moral development, ethical evaluation and ethical intention: A selected group of Taiwanese CPA’s.

Order No. 3325876

The perception of accounting professionals having low ethical standards and therefore lacking credibility is evidenced by the many scandals globally over the last ten years including Enron, WorldCom, Merck and Xerox. Thus, developing an understanding of the CPA’s moral development and the factors that influence ethical decisions is critical.

This study attempts to extend the research on moral development as a predictor of ethical evaluation and ethical intention of accounting professionals and looks to ascertain the demographic factors that influence moral reasoning, ethical evaluation and ethical intention. This research is the first to examine these questions in the accounting profession in Taiwan. The study first examines the relationship between moral reasoning, measured by the Defining Issues Test (DIT) and the two components of ethical decision- making (ethical evaluation and ethical intention), measured by the three questions of the Multidimensional Ethical Scale (MES). The MES instrument depicts ethical situations for accountants. The study sample is 316 Taiwanese CPA’s.

This study has several important findings: (1) CPA’s level of moral development was not significantly associated with expressed intention to perform questionable actions. (2) CPA’s with a higher level of moral development are not likely to express the intention perform questionable actions. (3) There is a relationship between ethical evaluation and ethical intention. (4) CPA’s moral development does not appear to be associated with their age, gender, education level, ethics training or professional levels. (5) CPA’s ethical evaluation appears to be associated with their gender, education level or ethics training, but not age or professional level. (6) CPA’s ethical intention appears to be associated with their gender or education level, but not age, professional level, or ethics training.

These findings are discussed in the light of Maharishi Vedic Science, which provides a scientific approach to foster moral development through experience of the Unified Field of Nature Law.

Goodman, David Harvey — Management

Construction and validation of an instrument designed to assess flow and job satisfaction in occupational settings: exploratory research

Order No. 9633807

The purposes of this dissertation were to explore the flow experience at work and to construct and validate a questionnaire. Flow is characterized by highly positive states and total involvement in activity. Two versions of the Work Experience Questionnaire (WEQ) were constructed and validated in corporate settings indicating that the WEQ is a promising instrument.

Study 1. The first version of the questionnaire was administered to 44 subjects along with Csikszentmihalyi/Heckman’s questionnaire, The Study of Flow in the Workplace. Items were positively and negatively anchored (flow/anti-flow) according to Csikszentmihalyi’s six flow characteristics. The two factor principle components solution clearly separated positive and negative characteristics (Cronbach alpha of 0.8082 and 0.8156). The screen test specified 7 factors, which were: (1) frustration in turbulence, (2) psychological traits of unhappiness, (3) confidence to deal with the demands at work, (4) joyous creativity, (5) teamwork and goal attainment, (6) contentment, (7) distraction. Anti-flow items more closely approximated the proposed classification than the flow items. Concurrent validity on Csikszentmihalyi/Heckman’s three questions showed that one, skills that seemed second-nature, correlated with WEQ Total Flow (p=0.037).

Study 2. A 72-item version of the WEQ was administered to 94 subjects in three sessions. The Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire, Short-Form, (MSQ), Social Desirability and a two question test on Personal Efficacy were administered concurrently with a subset of these subjects. The correlation between Social Desirability and Total Flow, (r =-0.327) indicated that high flow was not likely to be fabricated. Personal efficacy was correlated with average satisfaction from the MSQ (r = -0.560) and negatively correlated with Total Anti- flow (r = -0.513), and Social Desirability (r = -0.485). The relation with previously specified characteristics was strengthened when positive and negative items were separately factor analyzed.

The experience of flow which is often an ephemeral condition of waking consciousness was compared and contrasted with the experience of pure consciousness and higher states of consciousness, as defined by Maharishi Mahesh Yogi. The establishment of self-referral awareness as an all-time reality characterizes higher states of consciousness. Source: DAI, 57, no. 06B, (1996): 4068

Herron, Robert Emmanuel — Management

The impact of Transcendental Meditation practice on medical expenditures

Order No. 9310427

Despite attempts to contain health care spending, these costs have continued to grow rapidly. Consequently, new strategies are needed. In response to this need, this research evaluated the impact of Maharishi Mahesh Yogi’s Transcendental Meditation (TM) program on medical expenditures. Over 500 studies conducted worldwide indicate that TM practice produces a unique state of restful alertness that improves mental and physical health. Biochemical and psychological research shows that TM practice also eliminates stress that degrades the immune system and increases disease susceptibility. Previous cross- sectional research (Orme-Johnson, 1987) found that TM practitioners have lower medical care utilization than nonmeditating control groups. This longitudinal study evaluated the possible effect of TM practice on medical expenditures as measured by payments for physicians’ services. In 1991 meditators in Quebec, Canada were mailed questionnaires that asked for their health insurance number that enabled the government to retrieve the monthly physicians’ expenses from 1981-1990 for 599 subjects. A mail survey of nonrespondents was also conducted. The data was controlled for age, sex, inflation (physicians’ fee index), year-specific variation and season, and was analyzed three years before and after subjects started TM practice. During the pretest the physicians’ expense differences were nonsignificant between TM subjects and the averages of all enrollees of the same age and sex in the Quebec health insurance plan. During the posttest TM subjects’ real (inflation adjusted) expenses declined 12.4% annually over three years (cumulative change: approximately 36%). The sample was subdivided to analyze those who incurred high costs in the pre-TM period regardless of age. During the posttest high-cost cases exhibited real expense declines that averaged 18% annually. This effect is not due to regression to the mean. Subjects over fifty years old were also analyzed, and their real expenses declined 19% annually over three years. There is no evidence of nonresponse bias. A thorough examination of threats to validity did not support an alternative hypothesis. These results support the hypothesis that TM practice reduces medical expenditures. When compared with the cost effectiveness of other health promotion and disease prevention interventions, the TM technique showed superior medical expense reduction capability. Consequently, the Transcendental Meditation program is recommended as a strategy for reducing health care expenditures in high-cost groups that incur the majority of expenses in most populations. ftn Orme- Johnson, D. W. Reference. (1987). Medical Care Utilization and the Transcendental Meditation Program. Psychosomatic Medicine. 49:493-507. Source: DAI, 53, no. 12A, (1993): 4219

Huang, Ayako (Hsin-Ling) — Management

Contractual Relationship and Evolving Licensing Deals: A Paradigm for the Application of the Theory of the Norm

Order No. 3523279

The licensing deal is an organizational phenomenon to the extent that it exhibits relational features. These deals are governed by both contractual behaviors that are regulated through the “black letter” of the deal and non-contractual behaviors that are guided by social norms. Understanding more about norms, implicit obligations, and other relational features, and the nature of social relationships that structure behavior in licensing would allow us to motivate the behaviors in supporting partnership and reduce opportunism.

This dissertation focuses on the interrelations between economic activities (especially technology transfer), individual status in various domains (political, economic, social), and inter-firm relationships. Results indicate that standard views of negotiating the licensing contract are inadequate. That is, economists have no language with which to explain “appropriate” behavior. This is strictly a sociological concept. March (1999) distinguished the economic and sociological perspectives by saying that economists explain behavior using a “logic of consequence,” referring to the effects of an action in relation to one’s preferences, whereas sociologists explain behavior in terms of a “logic of appropriateness,” in which action can be justified on the grounds that it is expected in the context of a person’s role, social position, or background. It is this expectation, or more precisely a common expectation, that defines a norm.

Evidence from this research demonstrates that social norms provide the solution to technology transfer problems, especially in cases where standard models of rational choice or contractual adaptation cannot provide explanations for any contractual commitment that is beyond the contract itself. Behaviors under licensing contracts rely more on social norms than on legal rights and duties. In particular, social norms are most relevant and effective when the deals involve amendment.

Huang, Shih-Ming (Brandon) — Management

Perceived health and indoor environmental quality in green-certified and non-green buildings in a public organization in Taiwan.

Order No. 3374435

The current study is the first to empirically investigate the effects of green-certified buildings on human resource outcomes. This observational study uses survey data to compare self-reported health symptoms (HS) and satisfaction with indoor environmental quality (IEQS) for two intact groups of male employees working for the same public sector employer in Taiwan: one group works in certified green building (n=211), and the other works in two non-green buildings (n=161).

Using multiple regression analysis, this study found strong empirical support for 3 of 4 research hypotheses. First, study participants in the green building had IEQS scores 32.3% higher on average (p < 0.001) than those in the non-green buildings, controlling for general building satisfaction (GBS) and average weekly hours worked in the building (HRs). The observed effect size for the difference in the adjusted mean IEQS scores is 4.62, a very large effect as defined by Cohen. Thus this effect of the green building on IEQS is both statistically significant and substantively important.

Second, employees in the green building had HS scores 7.50 points (or 15.9%) higher, on average, than those in the non-green buildings controlling for GBS, HRs, job satisfaction (JS), age (AGE), and psychological demands of work (PSD) (p < 0.001). The effect size for the estimated difference in adjusted HS means is 2.26, a large effect.

Strong empirical support was also found for the third research hypothesis using an alternative specification of the model for HS in which IEQS is added as a control variable. On average, a one point increase in IEQS is associated with a 0.19 point increase in HS, controlling for GB, JS, AGE, PSD, GBS, and HRs (p < 0.001). The effect size for IEQS is 0.56, a large effect as defined by Cohen and Cohen for continuous explanatory variables in regression analysis.

The fourth research hypothesis was not empirically supported by the data. Depending on the specification of the model for HS, the effect of JS on HS is either negligible (explains less than 1% of the variance in HS) and not significant or negligible, significant, and the wrong sign (negative).

Kendz, Stanley — Management

An Investigation of Consciousness-based Management and the Support of Nature Phenomenon Experienced by Long-Term Practitioners of the Transcendental Meditation® and TM-Sidhi® Programs, Including Yogic Flying®

Order No. 3704920

Maharishi Vedic ScienceSM extols the Support of Nature, often referred to as luck and good fortune, as a consciousness-based management tool to do less and accomplish more in fulfilling personal desires and professional goals. The Transcendental Meditation® and TM-Sidhi ® Programs, including Yogic Flying, are said to cultivate the development of consciousness, resulting spontaneously in increased Support of Nature. Subjects who were long-term, twice-daily practitioners of these techniques who were residing in Fairfield, Iowa were selected to partake in qualitative, semi-structured interviews about personal experiences of more effortless fulfillment of desires. Six of the 18 subjects were senior executive officers (SEO) of the international Transcendental Meditation program. The remaining 12 were active participants of the Invincible America Assembly SM, an organization founded by Maharishi to establish world peace.

All subjects reported experiences of Support of Nature. All subjects also reported that with continued practice of the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi Programs, the frequency, timeliness, and meaningfulness of their Support of Nature experiences increased over time. When describing their inner experiences associated with the Support of Nature, subjects reported being in a quiet and relaxed state of mind.

When findings were analyzed with reference to a model of levels of the mind, it was noted that in describing the fulfillment of desires through Support of Nature, subjects primarily talked about the higher Self – Pure Consciousness; while the ego, intellect, and thinking mind were not much mentioned. This suggests the possibility of a new approach to management in which cultivating higher states of consciousness is the primary tool of management, while intellectual analysis of how goals will be achieved takes a lesser role as the achievement of desired goals is entrusted to the Support of Nature.

Kwabena, Osei-Fosu Augustine — Management

Development of a Structural Model Based Upon the Theory of Planned Behavior to Assess Ghanaians’ Intentions, Attitudes, and Knowledge Regarding Sustainability

Order No. 10259691

Many African countries, including Ghana, are grappling with problems associated with economic development such as deforestation, pollution, and unsustainable population growth. No previous study has systematically investigated relevant psychological factors.

The objective of this study was to understand the psychological barriers and enablers are for sustainable development in Ghana. A causal path model was developed and tested, based upon the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and relevant research on sustainability. The model included constructs that are typically included in TPB models (intentions, attitudes, subjective norm, personal norm, perceived behavioral control, and knowledge), as well as skepticism regarding sustainability, and individual financial situation. The primary dependent variable was intentions regarding sustainable behaviors. A questionnaire was developed to collect data with which to test the causal path model and 510 in Kumasi, Ghana completed the questionnaire. Data was analyzed using structural modeling to examine the goodness of fit of the causal path model and to test hypothesized relationships between model variables.

Goodness of fit of the structural model was adequate and model variables accounted for 29% of the variance in behavioral intentions, which was the primary dependent variable. With regard to intentions regarding sustainable behaviors, total effects of attitudes, perceived behavioral control, and personal norms were statistically significant and in the positive direction, as hypothesized. Knowledge concerning sustainability issues in Ghana had a positive total effect on attitudes towards sustainability, which was statistically significant, as hypothesized. Knowledge also had positive and significant total effects on perceived behavioral control and on personal norms, consistent with hypotheses.

The study findings highlight the importance of education to impact attitudes and knowledge regarding sustainability issues in Ghana. A transition to a truly sustainable society would require a major transformation of attitudes and knowledge, both on the individual level and on the societal level. From this perspective, the study findings are consistent with other research showing that such profound transformations are most easily achieved by utilizing the Transcendental Meditation technique to promote development of consciousness, both on the level of the individual and on the level of society as a whole.

Langwell, Christina — Management

Using Human Resource Activities to Implement Sustainability In Small and Medium-Sized Organizations

Order No. 3563427

A number of recent articles argue that human resource departments can make significant positive contributions toward implementing sustainability in their organizations. However, data show that HR professionals have been minimally involved in the transformation of their organizations toward sustainability. Further empirical studies are necessary to explore the role of HR activities in making organizations sustainable. This dissertation addresses this need by looking at how small and medium-sized organizations in Iowa have implemented sustainability using communication, engagement, training, incentive plans, and recruitment efforts.

Case analyses are presented for six organizations that participated in the Petal Project; two companies from Sustainability Circles offered by True Market Solutions; and one other Iowa college to compare with the two liberal arts colleges that participated in the Petal Project. The Petal Project is a program unique to the Dubuque, Iowa area in which companies can become Petal Certified by completing criteria established by the Project. Sustainability Circles focus on training in analysis of and reduction of energy usage within their organizations. These Circles conduct a series of joint meetings of representatives from several companies.

Qualitative data were obtained from interviews and documents. Analysis of the data examined how the organizations are using communication, engagement, training, incentive plans, and recruitment efforts to help implement sustainability within their organizations. The practices of these small to medium-sized organizations were compared to similar HR activities for implementing sustainability in larger organizations, from published surveys and from case studies of several multinationals.

Guidelines are discussed in the dissertation for human resource managers or green champions to more effectively leverage these human resource activities to help implement sustainability within their own organizations. Potential advantages of combining features of the Petal Project and Sustainability Circles are also discussed. The final chapter relates human resource activities and sustainability to the teachings of Maharishi Mahesh Yogi and explains how practicing the Transcendental Meditation technique helps individuals become more aligned with the laws of nature.

 

McCollum, Bruce Chester — Management

Self development and the spontaneous expression of leadership behaviors

Order No. 9971790

Efforts to develop leadership consistently fall short of the hopes and needs of students, trainers, and society. One approach to achieving larger gains in leadership development is to develop the leader from within, to develop the leader’s consciousness, the leader’s underlying basic awareness.

Although anecdotal evidence supports the value of personal development for leadership development, little systematic research has documented its effectiveness. However, in an eight- month pretest-posttest control group study in one company, fourteen employees including both managers and subordinates, learned a standard self development program, the Maharishi Transcendental MeditationÎ program. Results indicated that the practitioners of Transcendental MeditationÎ grew significantly more than ten employee controls in their expression of leadership behaviors (all ps < .05). This growth was measured by the Leadership Practices Inventory and was expressed in individual and group interviews. The Leadership Practices Inventory measures five leadership behaviors: Challenging the Process, Inspiring a Shared Vision, Enabling Others to Act, Modeling the Way, and Encouraging the Heart.

The conclusion of this study indicates that individuals can develop leadership behaviors easily, spontaneously, and quickly through the Maharishi Transcendental Meditation program. This growth was experienced by employees at all levels of the organization indicating that this technology is a powerful means for developing leadership throughout an organization. The theoretical consequences of this study are that leadership may be easier to develop than previous experience has shown. Further research is needed to explore the practical consequences of this Consciousness-BasedSM approach to leadership development. Source: DAI, 61, no. 04A (2000): p. 1509

Mengistie, Asmamaw A. — Management

Analysis of the Critical Success Factors for ERP Systems Implementation in U.S. Federal Offices

Order No. 3523280

An Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system implementation is acomplex information technology project that integrates organization-wide operations. Prior surveys have reported perceptions about factors which are critical to ERP implementation success. But no prior research has empirically tested the relationship between ERP implementation factors (IFs) as independent variables and project success indicators as dependent variables. In the present study the research questions were: 1) is there a statistically significant relationship between an identified set of implementation factors for ERP projects and the empirically reported success indicators? 2) Do specific individual factors predict the level of success? Paper and online surveys were collected from 92 senior level ERP project participants—CIOs, project managers, executives and consultant/developers with experience on Federal ERP implementation projects.

The study provided descriptive survey results for ERP implementation success and perceived effectiveness of implementation factors in the environment of U.S. Federal government ERP projects. Linear and logistic regressions were calculated to evaluate the relationship of 16 IFs to three measures of the success of ERP implementation completion within scheduled time, percentage of budget exceeded and percentage of project objectives achieved. Similarly, regression analyses were performed in which the independent variables were the three composite implementation factors (strategic, tactical, and operational factors) to the same measures of the success of ERP implementation. The findings indicated that the 16 IFs as a whole can be used to predict significantly the failure of a project to complete within the initial time frame ( p=0.03). In the regression analyses on percentage of budget exceeded, the16 IFs as a whole (p=0.034) and the three composite factors as a whole were jointly significant predictors (p<0.0005). The strategic and tactical composite factors were each individually significant as predictors of percentage of budget exceeded (p<.001 and p<.0005, respectively). However, the 16 IFs as well as the three composite factors were not significant predictors of reported achievement of project objectives. The statistical results of the study support the model that the composite strategic, tactical, and operational factors are significant for ERP project implementation success.

Oaas, Taoline — Management

Application of Consciousness-Based Education in Thailand to Create Sufficiency Economy: Theory, Documentation, and Future Directions

Order No. 3563432

Strategies to actualize the noble, people-centered development goals for Thailand based in the Philosophy of Sufficiency Economy have been carefully drafted by Thai policy makers. However, their own assessments reveal that such strategies have yielded at best minimal success.

This dissertation brings forward a new, innovative strategy—developing total brain functioning through Consciousness-Based education—and examines how this strategy can swiftly realize the Thai goals, ideal as they are.

To this end, this dissertation documents a clear picture of how Consciousness-Based education can powerfully support the actualization of the Thai goals. It considers Sufficiency Economy and Thai development plans in light of two ongoing Consciousness-Based education projects in Thailand that the author helped initiate, develop, and teach; how Consciousness-Based education develops total brain functioning; over 350 peer-reviewed studies conducted worldwide; and outcomes of Consciousness-Based education projects in other countries. Specifically, the dissertation discusses: • Thailand’s development goals, based on Sufficiency Economy, that envision a nation whose citizens are free and happy; have sufficient food and comfort; are healthy, ethical, creative, and knowledgeable; participate in life-long learning; enjoy a prospering free-market economy; uphold traditional Thai values; preserve natural resources and improve the environment. Further, the nation is self-immune to fluctuations in global markets and internal and external conflicts; • how Consciousness-Based education develops total brain functioning, considering (a) theoretical knowledge of consciousness, (b) a practical technology to experience consciousness directly to wake up the total brain—the Transcendental Meditation technique—and, (c) innovative teaching methodologies; • how more than 350 research studies suggest that Consciousness-Based education can actualize specific Thai development goals; and • self-reports from the author’s personal experience with Consciousness-Based education in Thailand, highlighting Dhammajarinee Witthaya secondary school and Department of Science of Creative Intelligence for Management, Rajapark Institute, including self-reports from students, faculty, parents, and administrators that illustrate the effectiveness of Consciousness-Based education in actualizing the Thai development goals.

In conclusion, this dissertation proposes future research and development of Consciousness-Based education in Thailand that includes creating a Consciousness-Based education institution in every province and assessing outcomes over five years using the Thai government’s own standards.

Rao, Manjunath H.S. — Management

Exploring the Role of Standard Costing in Lean Manufacturing Enterprises: A Structuration Theory Approach

Order No. 3563433

Lean accounting experts have argued that use of standard costing in lean manufacturing enterprises is a non-value added activity. They have asserted that the use of standard costing systems in lean manufacturing environments can give rise to anomalies in performance measurement and reporting. Yet, lean accounting experts have also provided anecdotal evidence suggesting that many lean manufacturers continue to use standard costing and variance analysis even after lean management methods are pervasively implemented.

This research study, the first cross-organizational survey in the US of standard cost accounting practices in mature lean manufacturing business units, was undertaken to examine two main research objectives: (a) to understand the current state of practice with regard to use of standard costing and variance analysis (SCVA) in mature lean manufacturing enterprises in US, and (b) to understand the reasons why lean manufacturers might choose to retain standard costing even after pervasive implementation of lean management methods.

Based on responses from 49 identified lean manufacturers, the results show that 46 (94%) lean manufacturing companies continue to use SCVA. A chi-square test was used to test the hypothesis that the minimum majority (50%) of the identified mature lean manufacturers will discard standard costing. The test showed that the number of identified mature lean manufacturing enterprises in the sample that have discarded standard costing is significantly lower than the expectation.

The evaluation of reasons behind continuing use of SCVA was limited by small sample size. Yet, the pattern of responses suggests that the majority of the reported lean manufacturing enterprises seem to retain SCVA due to the existence of legacy arrangements such as use of monument machines, low knowledge of lean by accountants, and continued use of legacy ERP systems, which might be contributing factors for continued retention of SCVA.

The researcher offers guidance for future quantitative and qualitative studies. The researcher takes a position that the existence of legacy factors may be indicative of institutionalization of SCVA such that these practices may have become part of organizational culture over a period of time.

Rutto, Peter Kiprop — Management

The Influence of Rank, Tenure, and Years of Experience on Job Satisfaction of Academic Staff in a Kenyan University

Order No. 3523282

This descriptive-correlational study explored the job satisfaction of Moi University academic staff members as measured by Job Descriptive Index and Job in General (JDI/JIG) scales, compared to faculty job satisfaction levels of Eastern Tennessee Community Colleges in the USA. Out of 738 academic staff of Moi invited to participate, 480 survey questionnaires were found to be usable for this study, yielding a response rate of 65%. Results of t-test for independent samples showed that Moi University staff were more satisfied with pay (p=.042), while Eastern Tennessee State staff had higher satisfaction with the JDI facet work on present job (p=.021). There were no significant differences between the two universities on the other JDI/JIG scales of opportunities for promotion, supervision, people on your present job and job in general.

The study also investigated the effects of rank, tenure and years of job experience on the facets of job satisfaction for Moi University academic staff , using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey’s post hoc multiple comparison, regression analysis. A statistically significant difference on pay and opportunities for promotion was found among academic ranks (p=.018; p=.017 respectively) at Moi University. Professors (M=32.3) were significantly more satisfied with pay than were senior lectures (M=24.4) and lecturers (M=23.5). Associate professors were significantly more satisfied with opportunities for promotion than were lecturers (M=29.4 versus M=22.8 respectively). Non-tenured academic staff had a higher mean score (M=29.4) compared to tenured academic staff (M=24.4) indicating they were more satisfied with pay than tenured staff.

Results of this research can be used by Moi University to target interventions to specific subgroups, by rank, tenure, and experience, for specific facets of job satisfaction. Qualitative research could provide more insight into the reasons for staff satisfaction levels at Moi. The present comparison of one Kenyan university and one USA University can be expanded to additional institutions for more insight into cross-cultural differences. A model from Consciousness-based Education is presented which suggested a fundamental approach to job satisfaction by reducing stress and improving creativity.

Sanchez, Wen Chien —Management

The influence of consumer knowledge on willingness to pay for non-genetically modified foods in Taiwan: A structural equation model.

Order No. 3417232

Genetically modified (GM) food and crops became commercially available in 1994. Since then, widespread debates and controversies about the use of biotechnology in food production have emerged, mostly in western countries.

This study examined willingness to pay for non-GM food in a Taiwan sample. In conjunction with this, the theory of planned behavior (TPB) was evaluated to determine the relative importance of factors influencing purchasing behavior. In this study, Ajzen’s TPB model was extended to comprise two more constructs related to willingness to pay ( WTP ) for non-GM food. These two added factors were Knowledge about GM food and Self-identity . Distinguishing from previous TPB studies, this study employs path analysis to further explain the causal relationship in the model. A saturated TPB model was tested and an augmented TPB model was found to be a better framework in explaining influences on behavioral intentions.

Results indicated that the majority of respondents were willing to pay a 30% premium to avoid GM tofu. The total effects of Knowledge and PBC on WTP were negative and significant indicating that more knowledge about GM food and more perceived behavior control over choosing non-GM food result in willingness to pay more for avoiding GM food. The total effects of Self-identity and Subjective Norms on WTP were positive and significant indicating that one’s self-identity and perceived social pressure about eating non-GM food positively influence his or her willingness to pay for non-GM food. Furthermore, consumers’ knowledge about GM food positively influences their attitude and intentions toward non-GM food. These findings unequivocally substantiate that there is a demand for non-GM foods in Taiwan. This demand calls for alternative agriculture such as Maharishi Vedic Organic Agriculture which is introduced in this study.

Sawhney, Sabita — Management

Effects of the TM Technique on Anxiety, Emotional Intelligence and Trust: Implications for Supply Chain Management

Order No. 3523283

Increased attention is being paid to supply chain partnerships in which trust has been recognized as a key influencing factor. Empirical studies have established that partnerships amongst companies based on trust avoid opportunism in the supply chain, reduce purchasing cost, and improve profitability.

Despite the importance of `trust’ in improving the bottom-line for organizations, there is little work done on how to proactively develop trust between supply chain partners. Most of the existing work has held the view that trust develops over time as companies continue to work with each other, thus relying on a reactive process of self-selection. Predominantly, the topic has been approached from the viewpoint of what the trustee needs to do to promote trust development within a relationship. The existing literature does not make any reference to how a trustor’s own disposition to trust (DTT) may impact the development of trust.

The primary objective of this research was to develop a conceptual model linking the self-development technique, Transcendental Meditation, to an individual’s temperament, of which DTT is an important manifestation/component. The aim here was to provide a path to connect the regular practice of TM to DTT, thus navigating through other intervening constructs such as higher states of consciousness, trait anxiety, and trait emotional intelligence. The model was empirically tested by collecting data, using a self-administered survey, from 387 respondents. The participants were from 26 service and manufacturing companies that were randomly selected from Fairfield (Iowa) Area Chamber of Commerce. Due to the early stages of theory development, Partial Least Square technique was used to test the model.

The results provide strong support for the proposed hypothesis and the model, indicating that the regular practice of the TM technique cultivates a higher disposition to trust. The study also provides empirical support for the path through which the regular practice of TM manifests into DTT. These findings emphasize the importance of introducing TM practice in organizations to help develop greater trust internally among employees and externally with other partnering organizations.

Schmidt-Wilk, Jane D. — Management

The Maharishi Corporate Development Program: growth of experience and understanding in international top management teams

Order No. 9703935

Popular reports indicate that training in meditation is being introduced into corporations worldwide, yet systematic analyses of such programs are rare. Three case studies document the experiences and perceptions of members of top management teams who learned the Maharishi Transcendental MeditationÎ technique in the context of corporate-supported programs. The cases were generated using semi-structured interviews based on open-ended questionnaires conducted with 24 persons in managerial positions from a Norwegian company in the oil and gas industry, a British computer sales subsidiary, and a Swedish firm in the field of power transmission, and their consultants.

The study revealed the series of decisions that the managers undertook in authorizing and sponsoring the Maharishi Corporate Development Program and in their personal decisions and strategies about when, where and how often to practice the Transcendental Meditation technique and how to interpret its effects. The managers indicated that (1) their personal experiences resulting from practice of the Transcendental Meditation technique and (2) systemic development of the management team were important factors in their decision to practice this technique on a regular basis.

Individual-level changes reported across the three cases included improved mental functioning, health and health-related habits, work relations, and performance, emotional growth and more enjoyable family life, which contribute to development of the management team. Team-level changes reported across the three cases included improved communication, increased mutual acceptance and awareness of company needs and values, fewer arguments, move to fact-based decision-making, greater trust, openness, and happiness, and greater team cohesiveness and alignment.

The personal outcomes reported by the managers are consistent with extensive published findings on the Transcendental Meditation program in the general population and indicate that the Maharishi Corporate Development Program meets the criteria described in the management literature for an effective leadership and team development program. According to Maharishi’s Absolute Theory of Management, these comprehensive changes spontaneously result from unfolding the organizing power of Natural Law in the awareness of the manager through practice of the Transcendental Meditation technique.

Shivaji, Ediyattumangalam R. — Management

Relationships between Patient Satisfaction, Quality, Outcomes and Ownership Type in US Hospitals: an Empirical Study

Order No. 3523284

Public concerns about rising health costs and deteriorating quality of service in the US have become a serious issue. The Institute of Medicine ( IOM) report brought out the need for overhauling the US Healthcare thoroughly. This report recommended that healthcare executives should focus on performance improvement, driven by process, data, and evidence rather than relying on technology or working harder. Healthcare organizations face multiple objectives and constraints, while implementing performance improvement.

The design of the current study was nonexperimental and the study analyzed available archival data on patient satisfaction, process of care quality measures and outcome of care measures. The study tested nine research hypotheses about the relationships between these measures. The study also brought out the main components contributing to patient satisfaction and process of care quality measures.

The study used the public data on US hospitals, downloaded from the CMS database, maintained by the Center for Medicare and Medicaid services, a federal government agency. Data from over 4,500 hospitals were used in the analysis.

The major findings are summarized as follows: 1. Five components of patient satisfaction were identified and the implications to hospitals were discussed. 2. Nine research hypotheses were tested, and the evidence was mixed. 3. Mean outcome rates in Church owned hospitals were significantly better than the other seven groups and definitely not worse. 4. Evidence was mixed for negative association between patient satisfaction and outcomes. 5. Evidence was mixed for negative association between process of care quality and outcomes.

The study found some empirical evidence for encouraging hospitals to adopt the qualities “friendship, compassion, joy of serving and equanimity” advocated by the ancient Vedic physician Charaka as the prime qualities required by healthcare professionals. The study has many strengths such as identifying the principal components of satisfaction and quality, using the complete CMS data on US hospitals and obtaining some empirical evidence on the relationships between satisfaction, process-of-care quality and the outcomes. Some empirical evidence was also obtained on the need for qualities like compassion among healthcare staff.

The study findings are limited by the reliability of the archival data used. Statistical conclusion validity issues were adequately controlled during testing, by adopting diagnostic techniques. However, ambiguity of temporal precedence between outcomes and process of care quality measures is a threat to the internal validity of testing their relationship. A subsequent larger study requiring support from CMS is proposed.

The study findings will assist hospitals in their performance improvement activities.

Ventura, Louis Luiz — Management

Virtual Work Teams as Self-Organizing Systems: Goals, Empowerment, and Communication as Determinants of Virtual Workers’ Self-Perceived Performance

Order No. 3479904

Information technology has made virtual working environments possible and brought innovation in business processes. Because organizations are becoming more and more engaged with information technology and development of virtual workforces, solving the problem of how to best measure and map virtual workers’ goal setting, empowerment and effective communications within global organizations has become of critical importance. The objective of this empirical study was to determine whether the variables goal setting (G), empowerment (E), and communication (C), both individually and in concert, contributed to improve virtual work performance (vwp).

In this study, the virtual workforce is conceptualized as a self-organizing system. The variables of G, E, and C are the hypothesized predictors of a virtual intelligence (VI) framework that facilitate and support the process of self-organization of the virtual workforce effective performance.

This quantitative study used survey data obtained from an international technology company (ITC). Sample consisted of 113 employees of an ITC in Brazil. The survey provided data for scoring the subjects’ self-perceived virtual work performance, goal setting, empowerment, and communication. The self-reported questionnaire was measured on a Liken scale based on data from a survey instrument with 33 questions. Tests showed that the reliability and validity of the instrument were adequate.

Multiple regression analysis found a significant, positive effect of increased goal setting, empowerment and communication scores on self-assessed virtual worker performance (p=0.001), as well as a significant, positive effect on performance of a simultaneous increase of all three determinants (p=0.001). Sensitivity analysis and extensive diagnostic checks supported the statistical conclusion validity of these empirical findings. Thus, these results provided empirical support for the hypothesis that an increase in goal, empowerment, and communication can enhance performance of virtual workers.

The implications of the findings provided an important step toward developing new strategies for evaluating the effective performance of workers engaged in a virtual environment. Moreover, this study reviews previous research that suggests that incorporating experience of the unified field, pure creative intelligence through the practice of the Maharishi Transcendental Meditation technique by individuals working in teams should have a positive effect on virtual team performance.

Wallace, Peter Gareth — Management

Development economics based on natural law: A comprehensive solution to the five faces of poverty through the principles of Maharishi’s program to eliminate poverty in the world.

Order No. 3130320

Poverty plagues the world, causing extreme suffering for millions of men, women, and children. Governments and institution have striven to eradicate world poverty in the last fifty years with continued overall failure. Despite poverty alleviation efforts, the number of people living in abject poverty in the last decade has increased by 100 million with a fifth (1.2 billion) living below the poverty line for developing nations of $1 a day and almost half (2.8 billion) living on less than $2 a day. Understanding five primary faces of poverty—(1) material well-being, (2) health, (3) education, (4) vulnerability, and (5) powerlessness—highlights the need for a comprehensive solution.

This study analyzes a new paradigm toward development economics presented by Maharishi Mahesh Yogi. It reviews Maharishi’s Program to Eliminate Poverty in the World in light of the five faces of poverty. Maharishi’s program offers a unique approach to permanently eradicate world poverty through Consciousness-Based, Natural Law-Based, human and agricultural development. Maharishi locates the source of poverty in violation of Natural Law caused by lack of adequate education. The solution lies in Consciousness-Based education, which teaches all disciplines of knowledge in light of the experience and understanding of the Unified Field of Natural Law, pure consciousness, the Self. The program addresses poverty through Maharishi Vedic Economy, emphasizing the development of individual consciousness toward higher states of consciousness and developing coherence in collective consciousness to train the poor to function in harmony with Natural Law. Scientific research documenting the effectiveness of Maharishi Vedic Technologies—the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi programs and the Maharishi Effect—is summarized for each face of poverty, supporting the program’s Consciousness-Based human and agricultural development approaches toward poverty removal.

This dissertation identifies 11 key principles of Maharishi Vedic Economy and the strengths and opportunities of Maharishi’s program. It contrasts principles of the program with principles from development economics. The analysis concludes that Maharishi’s program, based on fundamental Vedic Principles, provides a comprehensive and synergistic approach toward eradicating the five faces of poverty. Maharishi’s Program to Eliminate Poverty in the World is recommended to every nation, particularly those suffering abject poverty.

Yang, Mingfang — Management

Confucian-based Theory of Management: A Qualitative Study of Chinese Mid-level Managers

Order No. 3523285

Recent scholarship about managing in China has argued that a Chinese management theory needs to be developed in a Chinese Confucianism-based context. In the past centuries, Confucianism had influenced Chinese people dramatically. In order to understand Chinese employees in workplace, taking Confucianism into account was a necessary step. However, the majority of companies in China took and adapted Western-based management theories to deal with their Chinese employees. Empowerment is a Western-based management theory, which is different from the concept of authority in Confucianism. This study used a qualitative approach to explore that how Chinese mid-level managers think about and cooperate with their managers (Chinese and expatriate managers) in the workplace. Data was collected through 14 interviews with Chinese mid-level managers in two types of companies in China – Chinese-based companies and foreign-invested companies. Interview responses were coded in categories through several revisions. “The Analects of Confucius” was reviewed in order to get a better understanding of Confucian values, and specific values from the Analects were matched to each of the categories. The final result of data analysis was a framework of 11 principles. Ten principles were found to be common to both types of companies. An eleventh principle, trust, was different for mid-level managers with foreign superiors than for those with Chinese superiors. The results of this research suggested that Confucian values still have a strong impact on Chinese people’s behaviors, so in order to manage Chinese employees effectively, it is necessary to understand Confucian values. Based on the results, a Confucian-based management framework was constructed to guide managers to be effective in working with employees in China and all the countries have been influenced by Confucianism. This study created a greater picture for the managers (Chinese and expatriate managers) to understand the Confucian-based behaviors of Chinese employees in the workplace and might lead to more effective management results. It might also contribute to develop of a Chinese theory of management – grounded in qualitative evidences from managers in China.

 

Yang, Zhe — Management

The Impact of Corporate Social Responsibility on Financial Performance: Evidence from Chinese Listed Companies

Order No. 10828948

The present research aims to explore the empirical relation between corporate social responsibility (CSR) and corporate financial performance (CFP) in China using a sample of 608 firms in 2015. Using data from 2014 to 2016 for these same companies, this study also examines if prior CSR was associated with subsequent CFP and if prior CFP was associated with subsequent CSR. Data from RKS, a Chinese ranking agency, was used to measure CSR. The financial performance measures used were return on assets (ROA) and earning per share (EPS), based on data from the CSMAR database of audited financial statements of companies traded on the Shenzhen and Shanghai stock exchanges.

Sequential regression analysis was used to test the relationship between total CSR rating scores from RKS database and ROA and EPS in the same year, 2015, with control variable of firm size. The results showed that there was a significant relationship between CSR and CFP. Whether a relationship exists between prior social responsibility in 2014 and subsequent financial performance in 2016, and also between prior financial performance in 2014 and subsequent CSR performance in 2016, have also been tested by linear sequential regression analysis. These results found that prior CSR was associated with subsequent ROA and EPS, and also that better prior ROA were associated with greater subsequent CSR. There was no relationship between prior EPS and subsequent CSR. Additionally, Pearson correlation was used to examine the correlation between two Chinese CSR agencies, RKS and CASS; the results showed that there is a moderate correlation (r = 39.6) between them. The final chapter of this dissertation presents a theoretical discussion of consciousness-based, authentic vision and values as the foundations of responsible management which can lead to both CSR and CFP.

Zhang, Zi Yan — Management

The Relationship between Corporate Social Responsibility and Financial Performance: Evidence from China

Order No. 10137553

Abstract Meta-analyses concerning the relationship between corporate social responsibility (CSR) and corporate financial performance (CFP) have generally found a positive relationship. Yet some studies have found that there is a negative or no relationship. The present research aims to explore the CSR-CFP relationship in the context of China, where prior research has been inconclusive and has had methodological limitations.

This study used a knowledgeable ranking agency — the Research Center of Corporate Social Responsibility Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (CASS) – to measure four dimensions of CSR. The financial performance measures used were return on assets, return on equity and Tobin’s Q. The research was conducted on the 300 companies which had 2013 CASS-CSR reports and also had public financial performance data for the same year.

Sequential regression analysis was used to test the hypothesis that CSR would be associated with the financial performance controlling for industry and firm size. This analysis found no significant relationship between CSR and financial performance. Furthermore, this study also employed ANCOVA to examine whether there is a difference in financial performance between companies that disclose the CSR information and companies that do not disclose. The findings revealed that the companies which had completed CASS-CSR reports have significantly a better financial performance in return on assets, return on equity and Tobin’s Q compared to the companies which did not complete CASS-CSR reports.

Why was a relationship not found in this study of Chinese companies? The first possible explanation is that CSR reports in China can be symbolic gestures to create goodwill with government. The relatively low CSR mean scores seen in our data suggest that the CSR practice of these companies is not highly developed. The second possible explanation that CSR-CFP relationship between is less evident in developing world because CSR in the developed world will be more visible with a relatively mature institutional system and efficient market mechanism. Further research using data from years after 2013 can investigate if CSR performance is improving over time and if a positive CSR-CFP relationship emerges as market forces evolve.

Zhao, Jiangning — Management

The effect of the ISO-14001 environmental management system on corporate financial performance

Order No. 9605337

This study employed a quasi-experimental design to compare the experimental group (ISO companies) with the matched control group (non-ISO companies) on the effect of ISO-14001 registration (independent variable) on financial performance (three dependent variables): return on revenue (ROR), return on assets (ROA), and operating revenue (OPR).

This study also examined the effects of early adoption, length of registration, and size of companies on the relationship between ISO registration and financial performance.

The distribution of data on ISO registration indicated that industries with higher level of resources consumption, or industries with higher levels of pollution (i.e., auto industry 8.88%, chemical industry 8.41%, machinery industry 7.01%, and semiconductors industry 6.54%) were more likely to register for ISO-14001.

The experimental group (ISO companies) consisted of the 81 companies from the S&P large cap, mid cap, and small cap indices, which had at least one ISO certificate and for whom at least five years of financial data were available.

This study employed analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) as the main tool for statistical analysis. Baseline financial data of two years before registration (T – 2) was used to adjust change scores between T – 2 and T + 2. In addition, because of the violation of equal slope on OPR (for T + 2: F=2.2477, F*=1.9751), multiple analyses of variance (MANOVA) and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were also used.

Statistical analyses indicated that registration of ISO-14001 EMS led to lower ROR (p=0.012, N=162, α=0.05); lower ROA (p=0.041, N=162, α=0.05), and no change in OPR (p=0.3689, N=162, α=0.05). Early adoption, length of ISO registration, and size of company did not affect the relationship of ISO registration and financial performance.

It appears that implementation of ISO-14001 introduced expenses and inefficiency during the period studied. Further research is suggested for more in depth investigation on the quality of implementation of ISO-14001 EMS, rather than a simple test of the adoption. A model is presented proposing that when EMS is supported by environmental awareness, it will be integrated in business management in a way that can have triple-bottom-line impacts.